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Fatwa Answer

Question ID: 1571 Category: Marriage and Divorce
Divorce & Alimony Questions

 Assalamu Alaikum

I live in USA and have been married for 21 years and have five kids from this wife. I have married to another women in 2016 and have one kid from her. Since then I'm splitting my nights between them and paying all the expenses of both houses. I buy all groceries, pay for clothing, pay all bills (phone, electric, gas, water, internet etc).

My first wife has filed with court for Divorce (didn't receive any paperwork from court), Alimony (Spousal Support) and Chil Support.


I have few questions and need writted fatawa in Urdu or English (English if possible).

1. According to USA law if there is a divorce case pending in the court, wife can ask for Alimony Pendente Lite from me, which is kind of support for my wife during the divorce case for her personal expenses which is about 25% of my net monthly income. Court ordered me to pay her $1200 per month based on my income, this is only for her expenses while case is in the court and after divorce is settled there will be Alimony which is almost same amount that I would need to pay her every month for next 10 years or so. Court said that I have to pay her $1200/month and also have to keep paying for all home expenses.

My question is, is it halal for her to get this money from me through the court while I was and am still paying all the expenses of my house including food, clothing, bills etc.

2. After divorce is finalized, court will issue another order to keep paying my wife Alimony for next 10 years or so, according to Sharia how long should I pay her expenses and kids expenses. Is it halal for her to take her expenses from me through court for next 10 years?

3. After divorce is finalized, court will order about Child Custody and Child Support. I would be ordered to pay expenses of my children that are under the age of 18 years old. According to Sharia how long and how much I should be paying for the expenses of my children? Does she has right to claim Child Custody according to Sharia? My children are 7, 10, 15 and 17 years old.

4. During the divorce my wife can claim half of the my all assests (cash, properties, business etc) that were build during my marriage. Is it halal for her to take half of my wealth through court order?

5. Because I didn't receive any paperwork of divorce from court yet, my lawyer told me to file for divorce even you didn't get anything from my wife yet. It will change Spousal Support application to Alimony Pendente Lite which will reduce my total length of Alimony. Divorce case is not yet stared, does my filing of divorce count as Shari divorce or it won't count until court makes a decision?

6. Once court order of divorce is finalized, will it count as one divorce? will she be my wife according to Sharia?

I will appreciate if you can answer it, may Allah reward you in abundance.

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

الجواب وباللہ التوفیق

1. Expenses of divorce case are not obligatory on you according to Shariah. 

2. If she lives somewhere other than your home, without your permission, and overacts with disrespect, she will be considered as “Nashiza” (disobedient). Hence, during that period, her sustenance and living expenses will not be obligatory on you. 

3. After the divorce has taken place, you will be required to pay alimony only until the end of the 'iddah, that is, the period of three menstrual periods,  and none after that. But if the woman tries to takes it by force, it is not halal and she will be a sinner. 

4. According to Shari'a, boys will stay with their mother for seven years and girls for nine years. After that, the father will have the right to take the children under his guardianship.

As for the sustenance and other expenses of the children’s upbringing, the responsibility of their maintenance will be obligatory on the father per his capacity, provided:

a. The boy has not reached the age of adultness and is also not able to earn for his own living. But once his son is able to earn, the father will not be responsible for his maintenance, although he can fulfil this responsibility if he wants to.

Note that being able to earn is not just about being an adult, but also being able to earn a living as an adult. Therefore, if the adult boy (God forbid) is disabled and does not have wealth, then his maintenance will be obligatory on the father.

b. In case of the girl, the father will be responsible for her maintenance as best as he can, till her marriage has taken place. Moreover, her wedding expenses will be borne by her father as well. 

5. During or after divorce, the woman (your ex-wife) cannot claim half of your property according to shari'ah. If she takes by force, she will be a sinner.

If you designate the court as a divorce lawyer, divorce will not take place just by assigning a lawyer and filing a petition, unless the court has issued its verdict on divorce. But if you pronounce divorce and then inform your wife through a lawyer or court, in that case, the divorce will take place as soon as you write the divorce notice. 

If there is any other procedure in the divorce proceedings, write it to us in detail, to find out its ruling accordingly.

وإذا طلق الرجل امرأتہ فلہا النفقۃ والسکنی فی عدتہا رجعیا کان أو بائنا (قولہ) و إن کن أولات حمل فانفقوا علیہن الآیۃ، وأن النفقۃ جزاء احتباس علی ما ذکروا الاحتباس قائم فی حق حکم مقصود بالنکاح والولد إذا العدۃ واجبۃ لصیانۃ الولد فتجب النفقۃ۔ (ہدایہ، کتاب الطلاق، باب النفقۃ اشرفی دیوبند ۲/۴۴۳)

عن الشبعي أنہ سئل عن امرأۃ خرجت من بیتہا عاصیۃ لزوجہا، ألہا نفقۃ؟ قال: لا، وإن مکثت عشرین سنۃ۔ (المصنف لابن أبي شیبۃ، کتاب الطلاق / ما قالوا في المرأۃ تخرج من بیتہا وہي عاصیۃ لزوجہا ۱۰؍۱۵۲ رقم: ۱۹۳۶۹، المصنف لعبد الرزاق ۷؍۹۵ رقم: ۱۲۳۵۲)

عن عامر قال: لیس علی الرجل أن ینفق علی امرأتہ، إذا کان الحبس من قبلہا۔ (المصنف لابن أبي شیبۃ / ما قالوا في الرجل یتزوج المرأۃ ۱۰؍۱۵۲ رقم: ۱۹۳۶۸)

لا نفقۃ لأحد عشر … وخارجۃ من بیت بغیر حق وہي الناشزۃ حتی تعود۔ (تنویر الأبصار مع الدر المختار / باب النفقۃ ۵؍۲۸۶ زکریا، البحر الرائق ۴؍۱۷۹ کراچی)

وإن نشزت فلا نفقۃ لہا حتی تعود إلی منزلہ، والناشزۃ ہي الخارجۃ عن منزل زوجہا المانعۃ نفسہا منہ۔ (الفتاویٰ الہندیۃ ۱؍۵۴ا۵)

و نفقة الإناث واجبة مطلقًا على الآباء ما لم يتزوجن إذا لم يكن لهن مال، كذا في الخلاصة.

و لايجب على الأب نفقة الذكور الكبار إلا أن الولد يكون عاجزًا عن الكسب لزمانة، أو مرض و من يقدر على العمل لكن لايحسن العمل فهو بمنزلة العاجز، كذا في فتاوى قاضي خان."

(كتاب الطلاق، الباب السابع عشر في النفقات، الفصل الرابع في نفقة الأولاد، ١ / ٥٦٢، ط: دار الفكر)

مجمع الأنهر في شرح ملتقى الأبحر میں ہے:

"(و نفقة البنت بالغة) أو صغيرة و لم يذكرها لإغناء الطفل (والابن) البالغ (زمنًا) بفتح الزاي و كسر الميم أي الذي طال مرضه زمانًا كما في المغرب أو الذي لايمشي على رجليه كما في المذهب و كذا أعمى و أشل و غيرهما فقير تجب (على الأب خاصة و به يفتى) هذا ظاهر الرواية." ( باب النفقة، نفقة البنت بالغة أو صغيرة، ١ / ٤٩٨، ط: دار إحياء التراث العربي)

لم ینفذ حکم الکافر علی المسلم وینفذ للمسلم علی الذمي۔ (شامي، کراچي ۵/۴۲۸، زکریا۸/۱۲۶)

إن الکافر لایلي علی المسلمۃ وولدہ المسلم۔ لقولہ تعالیٰ ولن  یجعل اﷲ للکافرین علی المؤمنین سبیلا۔ (شامي، کراچي۳/۷۷، زکریا۴/۱۹۳) 

فتاویٰ عالمگیری میں مذکور ہے:اذا قال لرجل: طلق امرأتی کان توکیلاً و لم یقتصر علی المجلس الخ (ص:۴۰۲)۔

مَن قال لامرأتہ: انطلقی الی فلان حتی یطلقک فذہبت فطلقھا فلان صح ویصیر فلان وکیلا بالتطلیق و ان لم یعلم بوکالتہ۔ (فتاوی عالم گیری ۱؍۴۰۸

فقط واللہ اعلم واتم

Question ID: 1571 Category: Marriage and Divorce