Tuesday | 20 October 2020 | 3 Rabiul-Awal 1442
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Fatwa Answer

Question ID: 678 Category: Dealings
Divorce

Assalamualaikum, 

i like to attain answers and guidance in regards to my talaaq. My Ex husband gave me ONE TALAAQ via text message. I tried reconciling my marraige but he refused and closed all doors of communication at me. The three month period went by and iddah period was over and he refused to take me back. 
 
I have three questions under thē light of shariah law. 
 
At what base a man can talaaq his wife?
 
What are my right towards him? 
 
If this talaaq is valid how can i attain a talaaqnama?
 
Jazakallah khair

الجواب وبالله التوفيق

  • The rights that the husband receives over the woman due to his Nikah with her, Talaq(divorce) is the method of revoking and invalidating those rights. The husband has the right to issue divorce in the situation when he sees that the wife has become disobedient (disobedience = nushooz) due to which:
  • The underlying benefits of Nikah are becoming nonexistent
  • There is no apparent possibility of reconciliation
  • Even after trying, the relationship is deteriorating and becoming a source of malice
  • There is strong possibility that it will not be possible to keep the hudud-ullah(i.e. boundaries that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta‘alahas established for us) intact

(قال تعالی فان خفتم ان لا یقیما حدود اللہ (سورۃ البقرۃ

When the relationship between the husband and wife starts becoming unpleasant and both of them fail in fulfilling the matrimonial rights, then in case of the wife’s disobedience, the initial solution is to:

  • Utilize dialogue and counseling with her and advise her to refrain from disobedience
  • If the first step does not result in a positive manner then separate his bed with her (i.e. stop establishing marital relations) so that the wife may feel remorse for her wrongdoing
  • If both of the above steps result in nil then while remaining within the boundaries of the Islamic Shari‘ah, use other means of rebuke and reprisal
  • If all of the above still result in nil then try and find a resolution by involving two hakams(i.e. decision makers from both families)
  • If none of the above result in reconciliation, then there is no other resolution other than issuing a Talaq to her, and thus at that point in time Talaq is the only solution

Following are few of the reasons/situations for issuing Talaq:

  • Disobedience from the wife (i.e. nashizah)
  • No possibility of reconciliation between the husband and wife
  • Wife being a Fahishah-Mubayyina(i.e. a woman who is being openly vulgar and immodest)
  • Forbidding the husband from establishing marital relations etc.

اَلرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُوۡنَ عَلَى النِّسَآءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰهُ بَعۡضَهُمۡ عَلٰى بَعۡضٍ وَّبِمَاۤ اَنۡفَقُوۡا مِنۡ اَمۡوَالِهِمۡ‌ ؕ فَالصّٰلِحٰتُ قٰنِتٰتٌ حٰفِظٰتٌ لِّلۡغَيۡبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللّٰهُ‌ ؕ وَالّٰتِىۡ تَخَافُوۡنَ نُشُوۡزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوۡهُنَّ وَاهۡجُرُوۡهُنَّ فِى الۡمَضَاجِعِ وَاضۡرِبُوۡهُنَّ‌ ۚ فَاِنۡ اَطَعۡنَكُمۡ فَلَا تَبۡغُوۡا عَلَيۡهِنَّ سَبِيۡلًا‌ ؕاِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيۡرًا‏ ﴿۳۴﴾  وَاِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ شِقَاقَ بَيۡنِهِمَا فَابۡعَثُوۡا حَكَمًا مِّنۡ اَهۡلِهٖ وَحَكَمًا مِّنۡ اَهۡلِهَا‌ ۚ اِنۡ يُّرِيۡدَاۤ اِصۡلَاحًا يُّوَفِّـقِ اللّٰهُ بَيۡنَهُمَا‌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ عَلِيۡمًا خَبِيۡرًا‏ ﴿۳۵﴾    (النساء،35، 34

 

  • If the amount of mehr was not paid, then the husband shall:
    1. Pay that amount to the wife upon issuance of the divorce
    2. Pay her the living and food expenses during the period of her ‘iddah(if the wife was not a nashizah), if the wife was a nashizah, then such expenses shall not be paid to her

وان نشزت فلا نفقۃ لھا حتی تعود الی منزلہ والناشزۃ ھی الخارجۃ عن منزل زوجھا المانعۃ نفسھا منہ

(کتاب النوازل ، ص 237،  ج10 بحوالہ فتاوی ھندیہ )

  • The Talaq described as per your question is Talaq-e-Raj‘ai(revocable divorce)

واللہ اعلم بالصواب